Open Die vs Closed Die Forging

Open Die and Closed Die Forging are two different types of forging processes that each have their own unique applications and capabilities.

What is Open Die Forging?

Open die forging is a process that involves deforming a heated metal billet between dies that do not completely enclose the material. The as-forged geometry is achieved through a series of strikes. Products formed through open die forging often need secondary machining and refining to achieve the tolerances required for the finished specifications.


– Little or no tooling cost

– Reduced lead time

– Often used for small production runs

What is Closed Die Forging?

Closed die forging (also known as impression forging) is a process that involves a heated metal billet being transferred into a progressive series of impression dies that are brought together, causing the metal to flow to achieve the final shape of the forged part. The small amount of material that flows outside of the die parting lines, called flash, is then removed. The final trimmed part is sometimes used in its as-forged condition or additional secondary steps are performed such as heat treating and/or machining.


 – Less machining

– Few material limitations

– Better surface finish

– Cost-effective for large production runs

– Net shape parts with tighter tolerances

What We Offer

Walker Forge is the industry expert in closed die forging. We can customize forgings to meet your industry and application needs. Contact us today for a quote.

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Closed Die & Open Die Common Applications

Closed die forging is preferred for high precision in applications that require stronger & tougher parts:

  • Oilfield
  • Mining
  • Automotive
  • Agriculture
  • Transportation

Open die forging is suitable for large parts in lower quantities. Products include forged rollers, cylinders, and long shafts:

  • Railway
  • Aircraft
  • Oilfield
  • Marine
  • Off-highway

Forging Capabilities:

Maximum part sizes and weights

Carbon Steel
Up to 100 lbs. / 45kg.
Up to 100 in² / 645 cm²

Alloy Steel
Up to 100 lbs. / 45kg.
Up to 100 in² / 645 cm²

Stainless Steel
Up to 70 lbs. / 32 kg.
Up to 75 in² / 484 cm²

Materials We Forge:

Over 1,000 grade and size combinations ordered through approved SBQ mills.

Carbon Steel
1000 Series
1100 Series
1200 Series
1500 Series

Alloy Steel
4000 Series
5000 Series
8000 Series
9000 Series

Stainless Steel
300 Series
400 Series
PH Grades (17.4)

At Walker Forge, our primary process is closed-die forging, which involves heating special bar quality (SBQ) steel and shaping it to your custom specifications.

Choose us today for a wide range of sizes and types of forgings, supported by a complete array of value-added services including metallurgical lab testing, heat treating, and machining.

Contact Us to Discuss Your Forging Needs

Some of the world’s top-performing companies have turned to us for decades with confidence, thanks to an exceptional record of on-time delivery, dependable quality, and all-around easy experience.

  • 13 forging press lines ranging from 850 to 4,000 tons
  • Volumes ranging from a few thousand parts per year up to 750,000 parts per year
  • TS and ISO certified
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Heat Treating

Save time and money and get your part finished right with a wide array of in-house capabilities.